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Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian

Photographer:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Extent:
96 photomechanical prints (photogravure proofs)
184 printing plates (copper printing plates)
Culture:
Twana Indians  Search this
Hoh  Search this
Walla Walla Indians  Search this
Wishram  Search this
Suquamish Indians  Search this
Skokomish Indians  Search this
Quinault Indians  Search this
Quileute  Search this
Apache Indians  Search this
Tolowa Indians  Search this
Hupa Indians  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Squaxon  Search this
Mewuk (Miwok)  Search this
Achomawi Indians  Search this
Klamath Indians  Search this
Yurok Indians  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Cayuse Indians  Search this
Northern Paiute Indians  Search this
Santa Ysabel (Santa Isabela) Diegueño  Search this
Kalispel Indians  Search this
Spokan  Search this
Yakama Indians  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Nimi'ipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Tsuu T'ina (Sarcee)  Search this
Kainai Blackfoot (Kainah/Blood)  Search this
Denésoliné (Chipewyan)  Search this
Cree Indians  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
San Ildefonso Pueblo  Search this
Tewa Pueblos  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Kewa (Santo Domingo Pueblo)  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Jemez Pueblo  Search this
Serrano Indians  Search this
Washoe (Washo)  Search this
Kutzadika'a (Mono Paiute)  Search this
Kupangaxwichem (Kupa/Cupeño)  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Oglala Indians  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Hualapai Indians  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Tohono O'Odham  Search this
Mojave  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Wichita Indians  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Osage Indians  Search this
Yokuts Indians  Search this
Chukchansi Yokuts  Search this
Southern Mewuk (Southern Miwok)  Search this
Wailaki Indians  Search this
Pomo Indians  Search this
Wappo Indians  Search this
Maidu Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photomechanical prints
Printing plates
Photogravures
Photographs
Date:
1899-1927
circa 1980
Summary:
The Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian include photogravure printing plates and associated proofs made from Curtis photographs and used in the publication of The North American Indian volumes 1-9 and 12-19. The bulk of the images are portraits, though there are also images of everyday items, ceremonial artifacts, and camps.
Scope and Contents:
The collection comprises 183 photogravure plates (101 folio and 82 octavo) and 96 associated proofs used in the printing of The North American Indian volumes 1-9 and 12-19. The original photographs used to make the photogravures were made circa 1903-1926 and the photogravure plates were made in 1907-1930. The bulk are portraits, though there are also images of everyday items, ceremonial artifacts, and camps. About half of the proofs in the collection are originals used for Curtis's publication, though the collection also includes proofs made in the process of later publication by the Classic Gravure Company (circa 1980). Vintage proofs include handwritten notes, likely made by Curtis Studio employees in Seattle and Los Angeles. Many of the photogravure plates do not have matching proofs; in particular, there are no proofs for the octavo plates.
Arrangement:
The plates and proofs are arranged by the volume of The North American Indian in which they were published. They are described in this finding aid by the caption and plate number with which they were published.
Biographical / Historical:
Edward Sheriff Curtis (1868-1952) was an American photographer best known for his monumental and now-controversial project, the twenty-volume publication The North American Indian. Here he sought to document in words and pictures the "vanishing race" of American Indians.

Born in Wisconsin in 1868, Edward Curtis grew up on his family's farm in Le Sueur County, Minnesota, from 1874 to 1887. In 1887, he and his father Johnson Curtis settled on a plot near what is now Port Orchard, Washington, and the rest of the family joined them the following year. When Johnson Curtis died within a month of the family's arrival, the burden of providing for his mother and siblings fell to 20-year-old Edward, and Edward set out to do so through his photography. In 1891, Curtis moved to the booming city of Seattle and bought into a joint photo studio with Rasmus Rothi. Less than a year later, he formed "Curtis and Guptill, Photographers and Photoengravers" with Thomas Guptill; the enterprise quickly became a premier portrait studio for Seattle's elite. In 1895, Curtis made his first "Indian photograph" depicting Princess Angeline, daughter of the chief for whom Seattle had been named. The following year he earned his first medal from the National Photographic Convention for his "genre studies."

In 1899, Edward Curtis joined the Harriman Alaska Expedition as official photographer, a position which allowed him to learn from anthropologists C. Hart Merriam and George Bird Grinnell while documenting the landscapes and peoples of the Alaskan coast. This expedition and the resulting friendship with Grinnell helped to foster Curtis's ultimate goal to "form a comprehensive and permanent record of all the important tribes of the United States and Alaska that still retain to a considerable degree their primitive customs and traditions" (General Introduction, The North American Indian). Curtis made several trips to reservations from 1900 to 1904, including a trip with Grinnell to Montana in 1900 and multiple trips to the Southwest, including the Hopi Reservation. He also hired Adolph Muhr, former assistant to Omaha photographer Frank A. Rinehart, to manage the Curtis studio in his absence, a decision which would prove more and more fruitful as Curtis spent less and less time in Seattle.

In 1906, Curtis struck a deal with financier J. P. Morgan, whereby Morgan would support a company – The North American Indian, Inc. – with $15,000 for five years, by which time the project was expected to have ended. Systematic fieldwork for the publication began in earnest that summer season, with Curtis accompanied by a team of ethnological researchers and American Indian assistants. Arguably the most important member of Curtis' field team was William Myers, a former newspaperman who collected much of the ethnological data and completed most of the writing for the project. The first volume, covering Navajo and Apache peoples, was published at the end of 1907, but already Morgan's funding was incapable of meeting Curtis's needs. Despite heaping praise from society's elite, Curtis spent much of his time struggling to find people and institutions willing to subscribe to the expensive set of volumes. After the initial five years, only eight of the proposed twenty volumes had been completed. Fieldwork and publication continued with the support of J. P. Morgan, but Curtis's home life suffered because of his prolonged absences.

In 1919, Curtis's wife Clara was awarded a divorce settlement which included the entire Curtis studio in Seattle. Exhausted and bankrupt, Edward Curtis moved with his daughter Beth Magnuson to Los Angeles, where they operated a new Curtis Studio and continued work on the volumes; volume 12 was published in 1922. The constant financial strain forced Myers to leave the North American Indian team after volume 18 (fieldwork in 1926) and Curtis made his last trip to photograph and gather data for volume 20 in 1927. After the final volumes were published in 1930, Curtis almost completely faded from public notice until his work was "rediscovered" and popularized in the 1970s.

Curtis's "salvage ethnology," as scholar Mick Gidley describes it, was mildly controversial even during his life and has become ever more so as his legacy deepens. In his quest to photograph pre-colonial Indian life through a twentieth-century lens, he often manipulated and constructed history as much as he recorded it: he staged reenactments, added props, and removed evidence of twentieth-century influences on "primitive" life. Curtis's work continues to shape popular conceptions of American Indians and so, while problematic, his legacy--his vision of American Indian life--continues to be relevant.
Related Materials:
NMAI also holds Edward Curtis photographs documenting the Harriman Expedition (1899) as well as platinum prints and photogravures of the images published in The North American Indian.

The Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives holds Edward Curtis prints submitted for copyright (Photo Lot 59) as well as many of his original negatives, photographs, and papers.

Steve Kern donated photogravure plates to the Center for Creative Photography and the Seattle Art Museum at the same time that he donated this set to MAI.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Steven and Arlene Kern to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, in 1984.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Salish Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Pictorial works  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photogravures
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.080
See more items in:
Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-080
Additional Online Media:

Sally-Bag Twined Weave

Donor Name:
Miss Susan P. Keech  Search this
Collector:
Miss Susan P. Keech  Search this
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Object Type:
Basket
Place:
The Dalles, Wasco County, Oregon, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1932-Apr-16
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
119012
USNM Number:
E363888-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8410011
Additional Online Media:

Parfleche

Donor Name:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Collector:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Object Type:
Parfleche
Place:
Spedis (not certain), Deschutes River Area / Klickitat County, Oregon / Washington, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1935-Aug-23
Collection Date:
1934
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
135869
USNM Number:
E374052-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8412987
Additional Online Media:

Parfleche

Donor Name:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Collector:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Object Type:
Parfleche
Place:
Spedis (not certain), Deschutes River Area / Klickitat County, Oregon / Washington, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1935-Aug-23
Collection Date:
1934
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
135869
USNM Number:
E374053-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8412988
Additional Online Media:

Berrying Basket

Donor Name:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Collector:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Object Type:
Basket
Place:
Spedis, Klickitat County, Washington, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1935-Aug-23
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
135869
USNM Number:
E374063-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8412999
Additional Online Media:

Carved Wooden Bowl

Donor Name:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Collector:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Object Type:
Dish
Place:
Spedis, Klickitat County, Washington, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1935-Aug-23
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
135869
USNM Number:
E374071-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8413007
Additional Online Media:

Carved Wooden Spoon

Donor Name:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Collector:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Object Type:
Spoon
Place:
Spedis, Klickitat County, Washington, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1935-Aug-23
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
135869
USNM Number:
E374076-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8413012
Additional Online Media:

Carved Wooden Spoon

Donor Name:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Collector:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Object Type:
Spoon
Place:
Spedis, Klickitat County, Washington, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1935-Aug-23
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
135869
USNM Number:
E374077-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8413013
Additional Online Media:

Glass Bead Necklace

Donor Name:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Collector:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Object Type:
Necklace
Place:
Spedis, Klickitat County, Washington, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1935-Aug-23
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
135869
USNM Number:
E374080-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8413017
Additional Online Media:

Antler Whip-Handle

Donor Name:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Collector:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Object Type:
Whip
Place:
Spedis, Klickitat County, Washington, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1935-Aug-23
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
135869
USNM Number:
E374091-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8413028
Additional Online Media:

Camas Root-Digger

Donor Name:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Collector:
Herbert W. Krieger  Search this
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Object Type:
Digging Stick
Place:
Spedis, Klickitat County, Washington, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1935-Aug-23
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
135869
USNM Number:
E374094-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8413031
Additional Online Media:

Portrait (Front) of Tarkshany, Called Thomas Simpson MAR 1905

Creator:
Gill, De Lancey W  Search this
Subject:
Delegation, 1905  Search this
Physical description:
1 photograph 007 in x 009 in
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Indians of North America Plateau  Search this
Tlakluit Indians  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1905
MAR 1905
Local number:
NAA INV 06504200
OPPS NEG 03082 A01
See more items in:
Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_13673

Portrait (Profile) of Tarkshany, Called Thomas Simpson MAR 1905

Creator:
Gill, De Lancey W  Search this
Subject:
Delegation, 1905  Search this
Physical description:
1 photograph 007 in x 009 in
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Indians of North America Plateau  Search this
Tlakluit Indians  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1905
MAR 1905
Local number:
NAA INV 06504300
OPPS NEG 03082 A02
See more items in:
Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_13674

Princess Eagle Feather in Native Dress with Ornaments and Holding Bag; Other Bags, Blankets, and Cloth Covered House Nearby 1900

Creator:
Moorhouse, Lee Major  Search this
Physical description:
1 photograph 008 in x 010 in
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Indians of North America Plateau  Search this
Tlakluit Indians  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1900
Local number:
NAA INV 06504400
OPPS NEG 03082 B01
See more items in:
Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_13675

Portrait (Front) of Charley Celila or Van Pelt in Native Dress with Ornaments 1900

Creator:
Moorhouse, Lee Major  Search this
Physical description:
1 photograph 008 in x 010 in
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Indians of North America Plateau  Search this
Tlakluit Indians  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1900
Local number:
NAA INV 06504500
OPPS NEG 03082 B02
See more items in:
Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_13676

Portrait (Front) of Charlie Celila or Van Pelt in Native Dress with Ornaments 1900

Creator:
Moorhouse, Lee Major  Search this
Physical description:
1 photograph 007 in x 009 in
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Indians of North America Plateau  Search this
Tlakluit Indians  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1900
Local number:
NAA INV 06504600
OPPS NEG 03082 B03
See more items in:
Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_13677

Martin Spedees in Native Dress with Ornaments 1900

Creator:
Moorhouse, Lee Major  Search this
Physical description:
1 photograph 007 in x 009 in
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Indians of North America Plateau  Search this
Tlakluit Indians  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1900
Local number:
NAA INV 06504700
OPPS NEG 03082 B04
See more items in:
Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_13678

Martin Spedees 1900

Creator:
Moorhouse, Lee Major  Search this
Physical description:
1 photograph 008 in x 010 in
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Indians of North America Plateau  Search this
Tlakluit Indians  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1900
Local number:
NAA INV 06504800
OPPS NEG 03082 B05
See more items in:
Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_13679

Three Men, All in Partial Native Dress with Ornaments, Two with Headdresses, One Holding Staff, Cloth Covered House Nearby 1900

Creator:
Moorhouse, Lee Major  Search this
Physical description:
1 photograph 007 in x 009 in
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Indians of North America Plateau  Search this
Tlakluit Indians  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1900
Local number:
NAA INV 06504900
OPPS NEG 03082 B06
See more items in:
Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_13680

Man in Partial Native Dress and Carrying Quiver, Near Woven Mat Covered House 1900

Creator:
Moorhouse, Lee Major  Search this
Physical description:
1 008 in x 010 in photograph
Culture:
Wishram  Search this
Indians of North America Plateau  Search this
Tlakluit Indians  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1900
Local number:
NAA INV 06505000
OPPS NEG 03082 B07
See more items in:
Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_13681

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