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Ledger book of drawings, probably Lakota and Cheyenne

Creator:
Roman Nose, (Lakota chief)  Search this
Annotator:
Strong, Samuel E.  Search this
White, Charles C.  Search this
Extent:
1 item (disbound volume of 83 drawings+ 3 pages of notes, graphite, colored pencil, and ink, 20 x 32 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Ledger drawings
Date:
1866
Scope and Contents:
Ledger book of drawings, now disbound, with scenes of warfare, horse raiding, and a few of courting. The book contains drawings by multiple artists, probably both Lakota and Cheyenne, based on the events and war medicine depicted, esp. shield designs. Inscriptions in the volume give the history of acquisition and identify activities in each scene. The identifications are often in error regarding the nature of the scene and the tribal identity of the enemies.
Inscription on the final drawing, NAA INV 11013402, indicates that all explanations were provided by Charles C. White, also known as Fast Horse, former Sioux interpreter at Pine Ridge Agency.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1303
Album Information:
MS 1303 000
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 1303, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1303
See more items in:
Ledger book of drawings, probably Lakota and Cheyenne
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1303
Additional Online Media:

Oosica drawing of man in grass dance regalia with bustle and bells, with smaller figure holding another bustle

Creator:
Oosica.  Search this
Extent:
1 item (drawing and 1 letter in ms., graphite and colored pencil, 9 x 14 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota -- Teton  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1893
Scope and Contents:
Inscribed on face of drawing "That is me father, this I have the seke" and the names Osica and Oosica. Oosica is presumed to be the artist based on the inscription. Accompanied by 1893 note of transmittal from the donor Z. T. Daniel indicating that the drawing was found among discarded office papers and providing translations of names: Osica (Bad) and Oosica (Bad Wound).
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Z.T. Daniel was a career physician in the Indian Service. At the time of this donation he was the agency physician at Pine Ridge Reservation. He also served at the Cheyenne River Reservation and the Blackfoot Reservation, and made many donations to the Smithsonian over a period of years, most accompanied with detailed information regarding the origins of the objects. His name is frequently misspelled in museum records as Daniels.
Local Numbers:
NAA INV 08511500

NAA INV 08511600

NAA MS 166,930
Place:
United States Dakota Territory Pine Ridge Agency.
United States South Dakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
Album Information:
MS 166930
Topic:
Dance -- Dakota  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 166,930, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS166930
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms166930
Additional Online Media:

Drawings by Lakota students at Pine Ridge Agency School

Creator:
Alder, John  Search this
Allman, Lillie  Search this
Bald Eagle, Lucy  Search this
Bird Necklace, Julia  Search this
Black Bull, James  Search this
Mountain Bird, Edith  Search this
Eagle Horn, Josiah  Search this
Fire Thunder, Julia  Search this
Fore Head, Ada  Search this
Iron Horse, Susie  Search this
Irving, Willie  Search this
Mountain Bird, Edith  Search this
No Braid, George  Search this
One F., Carrie  Search this
Poor Bear, Albert  Search this
Richards, Lucy  Search this
Rocking Bear, George  Search this
Rocking Bear, Jessie  Search this
Rocking Bear, Silas  Search this
Rocky Bear, Susie  Search this
T., Frances  Search this
Walks Round, Benjamin  Search this
White, Willie  Search this
White Belly, William  Search this
Yellow Hair, Daniel  Search this
Collector:
Daniel, Z. T.  Search this
Extent:
53 Drawings (37 leaves, graphite and colored pencil on construction paper, 20 x 27 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota -- Teton  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1893?
Scope and Contents:
Drawings by children at the Pine Ridge Agency School, most inscribed with the name of the artist. Most if not all subject matter appears to have been copied from published source material and includes animals, plants, home furnishings, warships and pirate vessels.
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Z.T. Daniel was a career physician in the Indian Service. At the time of this donation he was the agency physician at Pine Ridge Reservation. He also served at the Cheyenne River Reservation and the Blackfoot Reservation, and made many donations to the Smithsonian over a period of years, most accompanied with detailed information regarding the origins of the objects. His name is frequently misspelled in museum records as Daniels.
Local Numbers:
USNM ACC 28,069

NAA MS 168,515

OPPS NEG MNH 1269-J
Place:
United States Dakota Territory Pine Ridge Agency.
United States South Dakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
Album Information:
MS 168515 000
Provenance:
Daniel, Z. T.
Topic:
Botany -- Dakota  Search this
Culture change -- Dakota  Search this
Zoology -- Dakota  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 168,515, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS168515
See more items in:
Drawings by Lakota students at Pine Ridge Agency School
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms168515
Additional Online Media:

Four Horns copy of Sitting Bull and Jumping Bull pictographic autobiographies

Creator:
Four Horns  Search this
Artist:
Jumping Bull  Search this
Sitting Bull, 1831-1890  Search this
Collector:
Kimball, James C.  Search this
Extent:
55 drawings (54 leaves, colored pencil, ink, and watercolor, 18 x 26 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota -- Hunkpapa  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Drawings
Pictographs
Ledger drawings
Date:
1870
Scope and Contents:
55 drawings (on 54 leaves) of war deeds drawn on the blank backs of loose-leaf printed roster sheets of the Thirty-first US Infantry, forms dated 1868. Also included: Autograph letter signed from John P. Williamson. Fort Randall, Dakota Territory December 12, 1881. 2 pages and 7 page "Index" describing each drawing. Also typed carbon copy, 5 pages with miscellaneous typed notes by Stirling, 3 pages. Scenes are identified in an accompanying handwritten Index provided by James Kimball based on information provided by unknown Indian sources. He identifies all pictures as illustrating exploits of Sitting Bull. An accompanying 1881 letter from John P. Willliamson, Fort Randall, Dakota Territory, amends that to identify a series of 15 drawings as representing war deeds of Jumping Bull, based on an interview with Sitting Bull. All Sitting Bull pictures except No. 55 contain his name glyph and many include his identifying shield. The Jumping Bull pictures have no name glyphs and are identified based on information provided by Sitting Bull to Williamson.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1929A
Place:
United States South Dakota Fort Randall.
Album Information:
MS 1929A 000
Genre/Form:
Pictographs -- Lakota
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 1929A, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1929A
See more items in:
Four Horns copy of Sitting Bull and Jumping Bull pictographic autobiographies
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1929a
Additional Online Media:

Sitting Bull pictographic autobiography

Creator:
Sitting Bull, 1831-1890  Search this
Extent:
22 Drawings (graphite, colored pencil, and ink, 21 x 34 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota -- Hunkpapa  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Drawings
Pictographs
Ledger drawings
Newsclippings
Date:
1882
Scope and Contents:
Pictures of Sitting Bull's war deeds, drawn by himself, with accompanying explanations. Each sheet autographed in cursive hand by Sitting Bull. The scenes are not in chronological order. The pictures were originally drawn on the front leaves of a bound volume of ruled paper and were removed by the archives for lamination. The remaining volume has 8 leaves with mounted newspaper clippings about Sitting Bull, and many additional blank leaves. Inside front cover inscribed "For Gen'l J.C. Smith, No 250 West Van Buren St, Chicago, Ill," and "Fort Randall, DT, April 14, 1882." Nine page handwritten explanation of each drawing, as dictated by Sitting Bull, also removed from volume. Also includes autograph letter signed from W. Tear, Fort Randall, Dakota Territory, August 10 and 16, 1882, 2 pages and typed carbon copy transcription. Three 4" X 5" color transparencies of drawings 1, 10, and 11 filed with 1929-b.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1929B
Place:
United States Dakota Territory Fort Randall.
United States South Dakota Fort Randall.
Album Information:
MS 1929B 000
Provenance:
Smith, Robert A.
Genre/Form:
Pictographs -- Lakota
Ledger drawings
Newsclippings
Citation:
Manuscript 1929-b, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1929B
See more items in:
Sitting Bull pictographic autobiography
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1929b
Additional Online Media:

Anonymous Lakota winter count on muslin

Extent:
1 drawing (pencil, ink, and watercolor on muslin, 89 x 176 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
n.d
Scope and Contents:
Pictorial calendar drawn on muslin in spiral form beginning at the center, covering the years 1752-3 to 1886-87. There is no documentation regarding who created the winter count. It is believed to have been collected on the Rosebud Reservation by John Anderson.
Biographical / Historical:
John Anderson (1869-1949) homesteaded in Cherry County, Nebraska in 1883; by 1885 he was working for rhe US Army at Fort Niobrara. He became a photographer and took hundreds of photographs of the landscape and people of Nebraska and South Dakota, particularly of people on the nearby Rosebud Reservation. Many of his negatives are now in the collection of the Nebraska Historical Society. He also assembled a collection of Indian material, now in the Sioux Indian Museum in Rapid City, South Dakota.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2001-10
Place:
United States Dakota Territory Rosebud Indian Reservation.
United States South Dakota Rosebud Indian Reservation.
Album Information:
MS 2001-10
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 2001-10, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2001-10
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2001-10
Additional Online Media:

Red Horse pictographic account of the Battle of the Little Bighorn

Creator:
Red Horse  Search this
Collector:
McChesney, Charles E.  Search this
Extent:
42 drawings (graphite, colored pencil, and ink, 61 x 92 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota -- Miniconjou  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Drawings
Maps
Pictographs
Ledger drawings
Date:
1881
Scope and Contents:
Sheets are numbered 0-41 (Number 27 missing). 1 page Manuscript in Charles E. McChesney's hand summarizing subjects as follows: Sheets 1-5, Soldiers approaching village; 6-10, Indian village; 11-15, Indians charging soldiers; 16-20, Custer's column fighting; 21-25, Dead cavalry horses--Custer's; 26-30, Dead Sioux killed by Custer's column; 31-35, Dead Cavalry--Custer's column; 36-41, Indians leaving the battle ground.
Biographical / Historical:
Red Horse was a chief of the Miniconjou division of the Teton.
Dr. Charles E. McChesney was an Army physician based at Fort Bennet, Dakota Territory in 1881.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2367-a

OPPS NEG 46999 A-K

OPPS NEG 47000 A-L

OPPS NEG 47001 A-K

OPPS NEG 72-3915 CN-72-3955 CN
Place:
United States South Dakota Cheyenne River Agency.
Album Information:
MS 2367A 000
Provenance:
Mc Chesney, Charles E. Dr
Topic:
Federal-Indian relations -- Lakota  Search this
Little Bighorn, Battle of the, Mont., 1876 -- Lakota  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps -- Lakota
Pictographs -- Lakota
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 2367-a, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2367A
See more items in:
Red Horse pictographic account of the Battle of the Little Bighorn
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2367a
Additional Online Media:

Roan Eagle book of drawings

Creator:
Roan Eagle.  Search this
Collector:
McGillycuddy, Valentine, 1849-1939  Search this
Extent:
1 notebook (33 drawings on leaves and inside covers, graphite, colored pencil, ink, and watercolor, 10 x 16 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Notebooks
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1880
Scope and Contents:
Drawings of scenes of individual warriors, courting, hunting, various animals, and a dance.The drawings are in a small bound pocket notebook with pages of ruled paper, covers repaired with cloth tape. Inscription on flyleaf reads: "By our special artist Roan Eagle."
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. V.T. McGillycuddy identified himself in a 1932 letter to the BAE as having served as attending surgeon with the US Army in the field during the Indian campaigns 1876-78, and as Indian Agent in charge of Red Cloud's Sioux from 1879 to 1886. In later years, he was president of the South Dakota Society of California and maintained correspondence with the BAE regarding his Indian experiences.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 387,048
Album Information:
MS 387,048 001
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 387,048, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS387048
See more items in:
Roan Eagle book of drawings
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms387048
Additional Online Media:

Book of drawings by anonymous Lakota artists

Extent:
1 item (disbound volume of 84 drawings (55 leaves)+ 1 letter, graphite and colored pencil on ledger sheets, 21 x 26 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota -- Teton  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1876
Scope and Contents:
Drawings of scenes of warfare, horse raids, courting, and ceremonies on pages of a ledger book, now disbound, covers not retained. Several pages bear storekeeper's (?) accounts of agricultural implements issued, in the names of several Indians. Dates on these sheets range 1873- July 1876. On one sheet the words "Pine Ridge, D. T." are written in pencil, now faded, followed by other writing in the Dakota language (11001600b). One phrase on this sheet ("miye heraka kin") seems to identify one artist as The Male Elk. Page 47 bears the words "waluta tokala ala eciyapiye" ("red root fox they call him"). The drawings appear to be by multiple artists, probably Teton Lakota.
An accompanying letter by James Mooney (1906) gives his opinion of the drawings, which were sent to him for comment. He believed them to be Western Sioux, of "about 30 years ago."
Names given in store keeper's ledger, (Pine Ridge, D. T.?): Black Hawk, The, Bear Eagle, Bone Necklace Son, Charger, Dog Eagle, Fats Son, The, Frozen Foot, Good Thunder, Half, The, Handle, Hawk, The, Iron Horse, La Barge, Tom, Laravi, Alex, Martin, Lewis, Meshel, One That Hurts Himself, The, Painted Arm, The, Pole, The, Rattler, The, Speach Maker, Spotted Horse, Standing Bear, Straight Head, Two Tails, Whirlwind, White Stone.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 39D-1
Local Note:
With autograph letter signed from James Mooney, Cantonment, Oklahoma, to W. H. Holmes, Chief, Bureau of American Ethnology, April 9, 1906, identifying the drawings as "Western Sioux, of date about 30 years ago."
Place:
United States Dakota Territory Pine Ridge Agency.
United States South Dakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation
Album Information:
MS 39D1 000
Topic:
War -- Lakota  Search this
Dance -- Lakota  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 39D-1, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS39D1
See more items in:
Book of drawings by anonymous Lakota artists
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms39d1
Additional Online Media:

Blackfoot picture writings translated by Richard Sanderville

Translator:
Bull Head, (Blackfeet chief)  Search this
Transcriber:
Carter, John Galen, 1891-1941  Search this
Creator:
Roman Nose, (Lakota chief)  Search this
Cloud Shield.  Search this
American Horse, 1840-1908  Search this
Names:
Sitting Bull, 1831-1890  Search this
Extent:
32 Pages
7 Photographs
Culture:
Dakota -- Teton  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Teton Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Pages
Photographs
Pictographs
Date:
June 13-18, 1934
Scope and Contents:
Dictated by Sanderville; written down by John G. Carter. Contents: Sitting Bull's Autobiographies (Dakota Number 1929); Wind River petroglyphs (Bureau of American Ethnology-AR 10, Figure 97); Madison River grave writings (Negative Numbers 215-b, 1-26); Roman Nose drawings (Dakota, Number 31303); Cloud Shield and American Horse winter counts (Dakota, Number 3203); petroglyphs in Black Hills (photographs with this manuscript).
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4444
Local Note:
Typescript and manuscript document
Topic:
Winter counts -- Dakota  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pictographs -- Dakota
Photographs
Citation:
Manuscript 4444, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4444
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4444
Additional Online Media:

MS 61 American Indian vocabularies and grammatical notes

Creator:
Gatschet, Albert S. (Albert Samuel), 1832-1907  Search this
Informant:
Tyler, Leonard  Search this
Making Medicine, 1844?-1931  Search this
Taylor, Rubin  Search this
Indian N.E. of Agency  Search this
Indian names at Darlington  Search this
Petter, Rodolphe Charles, 1865-1947  Search this
Block, Philip, Darlington, Oklahoma  Search this
Mooney, James, 1861-1921  Search this
Riggs, Stephen Return, 1812-1883  Search this
Hawkins, Kish  Search this
Making Medicine, 1844?-1931  Search this
Magpie  Search this
Wolf Face (Cheyenne)  Search this
Bent, James  Search this
Bent, George, 1843-1918  Search this
Extent:
53 pages
Culture:
Cheyenne -- Southern  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Yankton Indians  Search this
Teton Indians  Search this
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Navajo Indians  Search this
Arapaho Indians  Search this
Caddo Indians  Search this
Wichita Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Pages
Date:
1893
Scope and Contents:
From Leonard Tyler - text with interlinear translation, (Muihas or the Magpie) - 3 pages (No. 5-7). From David Pendleton (Making Medicine) - words - 4 1/2 pages. (No. 13-17). From Rubin Taylor - words and sentences - 3 pages. (No. 17-20). From Indian N.E. of Agency - words, 1/2 page. (No. 21). Names of Indians at Darlington - 6 names (page No. 21). Rudolph Petter - Collection of words - 2 pages (No. 22-23). Philip Block - Notes on different Indians by tribes - 1 page (No. 24). James Mooney - tribal names for the Cheyenne by the Yankton, Kiowa, Teton, Navajo and Arapaho. - 1/2 page. (No. 51)
Stephen R. Riggs - Dakota Grammar - extracts from. Approx. 20 pages. (Contributions Vol. IX (1893) ). Kish Hawkins - sentences - 3 pages. (No. 8-10). grammatical notes - 25 pages. (25-50). grammatical notes - 18 pages. (72-90). James Bent - Comparative Vocabulary of the Caddo, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Wichita - 1 page. (No. 90). Ditto - Arapaho and Cheyenne - 6 pages. (No. 91-96). Wolf Face - Notes on Cheyenne - 3 1/4 pages. (No. 97-100). Natural Philosophy - 3 pages. (No. 101-103). George Bent - list of personal names - 1 1/4 pages. (No.106-7).
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 61
Place:
Darlington Oklahoma Territory
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Cheyenne language  Search this
Yankton dialect  Search this
Kiowa language  Search this
Navajo language  Search this
Arapaho language  Search this
Caddo language  Search this
Wichita language  Search this
Lakota dialect  Search this
Dakota language  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Arrapahoe  Search this
Navaho  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 61, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS61
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms61
Additional Online Media:

Ales Hrdlicka photograph collection relating to the Panama-California Exposition

Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Names:
American Museum of Natural History  Search this
Royal College of Surgeons in London  Search this
United States National Museum  Search this
Extent:
595 Negatives (circa, glass and nitrate)
Culture:
Pueblo Indians -- depicted  Search this
Omaha Indians -- depicted  Search this
Osage Indians -- depicted  Search this
Jicarilla Indians -- depicted  Search this
Navajo Indians -- depicted  Search this
Teton Indians -- depicted  Search this
Hopi Indians -- depicted  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Mongols -- depicted  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Negatives
Photographs
Date:
1912-1917
Scope and Contents note:
The bulk of the collection consists of photographs commissioned by Ales Hrdlicka for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego, collected 1912-1914. They include front and profile portraits of Mongols in Urga, Mongolia, as well as Apache, Teton, Hopi, Navajo, Omaha, Osage, and Pueblo Indians. There are some full-length portraits of Apaches and views of Southwest Indian dwellings, activities, and a dance. Additionally, there are some images of United States National Museum exhibits and items from the USNM, American Museum of Natural History, and the Royal College of Surgeons in London, some of which were made by Hrdlicka in 1917.
Biographical/Historical note:
Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943) was born in Czechoslovakia and came to the United States at the age of thirteen. Originally trained in medicine, he developed an interest in physical anthropology while working with the New York State hospitals and researching with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State hospitals. Hrdlicka joined the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and made his own expeditions to study physical characteristics of Southwest tribes. In 1903, he was appointed head of the United States National Museum's newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology.

In 1912, Hrdlicka planned and directed seven expeditions, gathering information that helped him prepare physical anthropology exhibits for the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego, California (1915). Hrdlicka hired sculptor Frank Micka to make busts of people from around the world to display in the exposition. While in the field making casts, Micka also took front and profile photographs of subjects. Hrdlicka made his own trip to photograph the people in Urga, Mongolia, making 360 images of Mongolians and some Tibetans for use in the exposition.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 73-26B
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs relating to the exposition, including prints of many of these negatives, are held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 8, Photo Lot 9, and Photo Lot 88-25.
The National Anthropological Archives also holds the Ales Hrdlicka Papers ca. 1887-1943 and his photographs in Photo Lot 8, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 70, Photo Lot 78, Photo Lot 97, Photo Lot 73-26G, Photo Lot 83-41, and Photo Lot 92-46.
Restrictions:
Nitrate negatives are in cold storage and require advanced notice for viewing.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Physical anthropology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 73-26B, Ales Hrdlicka photograph collection relating to the Panama-California Exposition, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.73-26B
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-73-26b
Additional Online Media:

William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs

Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Names:
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Extent:
61 Photographic prints
Culture:
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographic prints
Photographs
Place:
Fort Laramie (Wyo.)
Kansas
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1866-1868
Summary:
Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) was a photographer best known for his portraits of President Abraham Lincoln, his American Civil War photographs, and his photographs of American Indian delegations. This collection contains 61 albumen prints that were shot by Gardner circa 1866-1868 and held in General William T. Sherman's personal collection. Photographs depict American Indian tribes and Peace Commissioners involved in the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty; photographs shot along the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division in 1867; and photographs of American Indian delegations visiting Washington, D. C. from 1866-1868.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 61 albumen prints that were shot by photographer Alexander Gardner circa 1866-1868 and held in General William T. Sherman's personal collection. Among the photographs are depictions that were shot in and around Fort Laramie, Wyoming during the 1868 peace treaty negotiations between the U.S. Government and tribal leaders from several American Indian Northern Plains tribes including Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux), Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke), Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne), and Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho); survey photographs shot in Kansas in 1867 for the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division (later renamed the Kansas Pacific Railway); and portraits of American Indian delegates in Washington, D.C. including Dakota (Eastern Sioux), Kaw (Kansa), Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux), and Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox) tribes, 1866-1868. Some of the photographs in this collection, particularly those in Series 2, may have been shot by photographers working with Gardner such as Dr. William A. Bell (1841-1921), William Redish Pywell, and Lawrence Gardner (Alexander Gardner's son).
Arrangement:
This collection is intellectually arranged in three series. Series 1: Fort Laramie, Wyoming, Series 2: Kansas Pacific Railroad, Series 3: Portraits of American Indian delegates, Washington, D.C.

The photographs are physically arranged in eight boxes according to the following: size, conservation work, and series. Within each box they are arranged by photo number. The photographs in boxes 1-4 had conservation work performed by a photo conservator in 2014.
Biographical / Historical:
Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) was a photographer best known for his portraits of President Abraham Lincoln, his American Civil War photographs, and his photographs of American Indian delegations.

Gardner was born in Paisley, Scotland on October 17, 1821 to James Gardner and Jean Glenn. He worked in a number of positions including as a jeweler, journalist, and editor before entering the field of photography circa 1855.

In 1856, Gardner immigrated to the United States with his wife Margaret Sinclair Gardner, his son Lawrence Gardner, and his daughter Eliza Gardner and later that year he began working as a photographer in Mathew Brady's gallery in New York. While working for Brady, it is thought that Gardner invented the "imperial print," a large photograph printed on approximately 21 x 17 inch paper that was often enhanced with hand-coloring and ink. Wealthy politicians and businessmen were among the clients who sat for their photographic portraits in the Brady studio and paid as much as $50- $500 per imperial print (today the equivalent of about $1,000 to 10,000).

By 1858, Gardner was managing Brady's gallery at 352 Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. When the U.S. Civil War broke out in 1861, Gardner was part of Brady's photography team that documented battle aftermaths and military campsites for the Union. Gardner left the Brady studio circa late 1862 and established his own studio in Washington, D.C. where he continued photographing the war along with his brother James Gardner, and other former Brady photographers including Timothy O'Sullivan.

During the war he documented the remnants of important battle scenes including the Battle of Antietam (1862) and the Battle of Gettysburg (1863). Gardner published 100 of his Civil War images in the publication Gardner's Photographic Sketchbook of the War. The two volume work included photographs shot by additional photographers including O'Sullivan and John Reekie.

In addition to war photography, Gardner was also a portrait photographer and photographed many civilians, soldiers, and politicians in Washington, D.C. Between the years 1861-1865, Gardner photographed President Abraham Lincoln on seven different occasions, including both inaugurations, as well as studio portrait sittings. On July 7, 1865, Gardner was the only photographer allowed to photograph the execution of four conspirators in the President Lincoln assassination.

In 1866, Gardner along with Antonio Zeno Shindler and Julian Vannerson were contracted to photograph portraits of American Indian delegates visiting Washington, D.C. Between the years 1866 to 1868, Gardner photographed many tribes in his studio including Iowa, Sac and Fox, Kaw (Kansa), Dakota, and Lakota. In 1868, Gardner was hired by the U.S. Government to serve as photographer for the peace talks that took place in Fort Laramie, Wyoming. During this trip, Gardner photographed the Lakota (Sioux), Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke), Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne), and Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho) tribes. Among the government officials at Fort Laramie that Gardner photographed was General William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-1891). Sherman served as a General for the Union Army during the Civil War and later in 1869 became the Commanding General of the U.S. Army under President Ulysses Grant's administration. A member of the Peace Commission established in 1867, Sherman traveled to negotiate treaties with American Indian Plains tribes. Upon returning to Washington, D.C., Gardner published a set of his Fort Laramie photographs in the publication, Scenes in Indian Country. Members of the Peace Commission were given photo portfolios and it is believed that the photos in this collection may have been from General Sherman's personal set. Gardner went on to become the official photographer for the Office of Indian Affairs in 1872.

In his later years, Gardner also was involved in philanthropic causes, such as helping to establish the Masonic Mutual Relief Association which aided widows and orphans of Master Masons. He also founded the Saint John's Mite Association which provided aid to the poor in Washington, D.C. Alexander Gardner died in Washington, D.C. in 1882.
Related Materials:
Alexander Gardner photographs are housed in many archival and museum repositories. Photographs from the Scenes in Indian Country series are also held in the Newberry Library in Chicago, the Missouri Historical Society, the Minnesota Historical Society, and the St. Louis Mercantile Library in Missouri.
Provenance:
The photographs in this collection were originally owned by General William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-1891) and may have been part of a portfolio of photographs that Alexander Gardner gifted to Sherman and other Fort Laramie Treaty peace commissioners. Photographs were then donated to the Museum of the American Indian (MAI) by Sherman's son P(hilemon) Tecumseh Sherman (1867-1941) in May 1932 and by Sherman's granddaughter Eleanor Sherman Fitch (1876-1959) in March 1942.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Railroads -- Construction  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-077
Additional Online Media:

James Schoolcraft Sherman's photograph of Chief Red Cloud

Photographer:
Bell, Charles Milton, 1848-1893  Search this
Printer:
Gill, De Lancey, 1859-1940  Search this
Names:
Red Cloud, 1822-1909  Search this
Extent:
1 Photograph (Opalotype, 24 1/4 x 35 in.)
Container:
Box 1
Culture:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Photographs
Date:
1880
Summary:
This collection contains an Opalotype photograph of Red Cloud photographed by Charles Milton Bell in 1880. The photograph was in the collection of the 27th Vice President of the United States, James Schoolcraft Sherman.
Scope and Contents:
P38087

This portrait of Oglala Lakota Chief Red Cloud was photographed by Charles Milton Bell in 1880. The photo is an opalotype (a direct postive photograph on milk glass) that was owned by James Schoolcraft Sherman, the 27th Vice President of the United States. The opalotype was kept in the family and passed down to Sherman's eldest son Sherrill Sherman, who installed it as a window in his home in Clinton, NY. Sherill's son, Sherill Sherman, Jr. then installed the window in his wife's music studio in New Hartford, CT.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in one box.
Biographical / Historical:
James Schoolcraft Sherman (1855-1912) was the Vice President under William Howard Taft (1908-1912). Prior to being Vice President, he was a Congressman from New York and for twelve years preceding the Vice Presidency, was Chairman of the Commission on Indian Affairs. He was also a collector of Indian artifacts.

Charles Milton Bell (circa 1849-1893) operated one of Washington, DC's leading photography studios. In 1880 he invited Oglala Chief Red Cloud, also known as Makhpiya-luta, (1822-1909) and the delegation he was traveling with to his photography studio located on Pennsylvania Avenue. Bell photographed both group and individual portraits. De Lancey Gill, a photographer from the Bureau of American Ethnology, presumably printed one of these Red Cloud portraits on a milk glass plate resulting in an Opalotype.
Provenance:
Donated in 2013 to NMAI in memory of the 27th Vice President, James Schoolcraft Sherman. A gift of the Sherrill Sherman, Jr. family.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); James Schoolcraft Sherman's photograph of Chief Red Cloud, P38087; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.280
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-280
Additional Online Media:

Septima V. Koehler collection

Creator:
Koehler, Septima, 1848-1918  Search this
Names:
St. Elizabeth's School (Wakpala, S.D.)  Search this
Deloria, Philip Joseph  Search this
Hare, William Hobart, 1838-1909  Search this
Extent:
39 Photographic prints
0.4 Linear feet (1 Document Box)
Culture:
Hunkpapa Lakota (Hunkpapa Sioux)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota [Rosebud Sioux]  Search this
Wahpetonwan Dakota (Wahpeton Sioux)  Search this
Nakota (Yankton Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographic prints
Letters (correspondence)
Place:
Rosebud Indian Reservation (S.D.)
Standing Rock Indian Reservation (N.D. and S.D.)
South Dakota
Date:
1890-1905
Summary:
The Septima Koehler collection includes photographic prints, correspondence and student papers that document Septima's work as a mission teacher for the Episcopal Church in South Dakota from around 1895 to 1905. Koehler taught Sicangu Lakota students at St. Mary's Mission School on the Rosebud Reservation and Hunkpapa Lakota students at St. Elizatbeth's Mission School on the Standing Rock Reservation.
Scope and Contents:
The Septima Koehler collection includes photographic prints, letters, essays and student papers that documents Septima's work as a mission teacher for the Episcopal Church in South Dakota from around 1895 to 1905. The collection has been divided into two series, Series 1: St. Mary's Mission School, circa 1895 and Series 2: St. Elizabeth's Mission School, circa 1899-1905. Series 1 includes photographic prints shot at St. Mary's Mission School on the Rosebud Reservation, South Dakota. Septima Koehler taught there in the early to mid-1890s but it is unclear when the photographs were taken since the photographer is unknown. The majority of the photographs in the collection were shot at St. Elizabeth's Mission School in Wakpala on the Standing Rock Reservation, South Dakota which are a part of Series 2. These were taken between 1899 and 1902 and several include shots of Septima Koehler herself which suggest they were shot by someone who knew her. There are also a number of portraits of Lakota students who attended the school, some identified with names on the backs of the photographs, including members of the Deloria family among others. There is also a group portrait from the 1903 teacher institute held at Standing Rock organized by A.O. Wright, Supervisor of Indian Schools. In addition to the photographs, there are essays and lesson plans written by Koehler, a letter from Septima Koehler to her sister Aurora from 1902 describing the start of the school year and student papers and work sheets produced by the Native American students (mostly Hunkpapa Lakota) attending the school as well as a student roll book. There are also name and receipt books from Koehler's work with the "Babies' Branch", a missionary outfit that raised money specifically for children.

The majority of the photographic prints in this collection are silver gelatin and most of the St. Elizabeth's photographs are both circular and matted. The prints have catalog numbers P19485-P19523.
Arrangement:
Arranged in two series; Series 1: St. Mary's Mission School, circa 1895 and Series 2: St. Elizabeth's Mission School, circa 1899-1905.
Biographical / Historical:
Septima Koehler (1848-1918) was one of seven children born to Herman and Aurore Koehler in Indiana. Both Septima and her sister Aurora worked as schoolteachers in southeasters Indiana from 1867 to about 1890 when the sisters began their mission work for the Episcopal Church. Around 1895 Septima was appointed by Bishop William Hobart Hare to teach at St. Mary's Mission School on the Rosebud Reservation while Aurora took a job as a librarian in Aberdeen, South Dakota. Only a few years later, around 1899, she was appointed to St. Elizabeth's mission school on the Standing Rock reservation where she taught under Principal Mary E. Francis. In addition to her teaching duties, Koehler also lectured on the importance of health and hygiene at reservation boarding schools, participating in the 1903 Standing Rock Institute organizing by A.O. Wright, supervisor of Indian Schools for the department of the Interior.

Between 1906 and 1908, the Koehler sisters moved to Nashville Tennessee to work within the African American community and from 1908-1909 they worked in a mill in LaGrange, Georgia. Septima died in Hagerstown, Maryland in 1918 from pneumonia.
Related Materials:
The Hutchings-Koehler Family Papers, 1699–1916, can be found in the Manuscript and Visual Collections Department William Henry Smith Memorial Library Indiana Historical Society. This includes correspondence and notebooks from Septima Koehler during this same time period in South Dakota.
Separated Materials:
Archaeological and ethnographic plains materials collected by Septima Koehler and inherited by her great-niece Elizabeth Kelemen can be found in the NMAI ethnographic collections. They have catalog numbers 23/8260 – 23/8319. There are also 14 sketches from St. Mary's Mission students with catalog numbers 25/1093 – 25/1101.
Provenance:
Donated to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in 1970 by Pal and Elizabeth Zulauf Kelemen. Elizabeth Kelemen was the great-niece of Septima Koehler.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Women in the Episcopal Church  Search this
Education -- Mission School  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Notebooks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence)
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Septima Koehler Collection (NMAI.AC.319), Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.319
See more items in:
Septima V. Koehler collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-319
Additional Online Media:

Anonymous drawing, probably Lakota or Cheyenne, of Indian fighting Army soldier outside a building

Collection Creator:
Roman Nose, (Lakota chief)  Search this
Collection Annotator:
Strong, Samuel E.  Search this
White, Charles C.  Search this
Extent:
1 drawing (graphite, colored pencil, and ink, 20 x 32 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1876
Scope and Contents:
Inscription reads "A Sioux Indian Attacking a Soldier."
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1303

NAA INV 11006401
Album Information:
MS 1303 001
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 1303, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ledger book of drawings, probably Lakota and Cheyenne
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms1303-ref1

Anonymous drawing, probably Lakota or Cheyenne, of warfare, with warrior with lance and shield, near tipi camp

Collection Creator:
Roman Nose, (Lakota chief)  Search this
Collection Annotator:
Strong, Samuel E.  Search this
White, Charles C.  Search this
Extent:
1 drawing (graphite, colored pencil, and ink, 20 x 32 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Blackfoot  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1876
Scope and Contents:
Inscription reads: "The sioux Indian kills the Black foot near the camp."
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1303

NAA INV 11007100
Album Information:
MS 1303 010
Topic:
Blackfeet  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 1303, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ledger book of drawings, probably Lakota and Cheyenne
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms1303-ref10

Anonymous unfinished drawing, probably Lakota or Cheyenne

Collection Creator:
Roman Nose, (Lakota chief)  Search this
Collection Annotator:
Strong, Samuel E.  Search this
White, Charles C.  Search this
Extent:
1 drawing (graphite, colored pencil, and ink, 20 x 32 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1876
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1303

NAA INV 11007200
Album Information:
MS 1303 011
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 1303, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ledger book of drawings, probably Lakota and Cheyenne
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms1303-ref11

Anonymous drawing, probably Lakota or Cheyenne, of warfare against Army soldier

Collection Creator:
Roman Nose, (Lakota chief)  Search this
Collection Annotator:
Strong, Samuel E.  Search this
White, Charles C.  Search this
Extent:
1 drawing (graphite, colored pencil, and ink, 20 x 32 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1876
Scope and Contents:
Inscription reads "A sioux Indian is killing the soldier by the arrow stick to the hipe [sic]."
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1303

NAA INV 11007300
Album Information:
MS 1303 012
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 1303, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ledger book of drawings, probably Lakota and Cheyenne
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms1303-ref12

Anonymous drawing, probably Lakota or Cheyenne, of warfare against Army soldier, with riderless horse on facing page connected to scene by line of hoof prints

Collection Creator:
Roman Nose, (Lakota chief)  Search this
Collection Annotator:
Strong, Samuel E.  Search this
White, Charles C.  Search this
Extent:
1 drawing (2 leaves, graphite, colored pencil, and ink, 20 x 32 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1876
Scope and Contents:
Inscription on first leaf reads "The sioux Indian braks his lance in the soldier's sholder [sic]."
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1303

NAA INV 11007400

NAA INV 11007501
Album Information:
MS 1303 013
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 1303, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ledger book of drawings, probably Lakota and Cheyenne
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms1303-ref13
Additional Online Media:

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