Sardanapalus (also spelled Sardanapallus) was, according to the Greek writer Ctesias of Cnidus, the last king of Assyria. The death of Sardanapalus was the subject of a Romantic Period painting by the 19th century French painter Eugène Delacroix, The Death of Sardanapalus, which was itself based on the 1821 play Sardanapalus by Byron, which in turn was based on Diodorus. (From Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sardanapalus, 10 March 2010.)
The sheet music cover depicts two warriors in a charriot driven by three horses.
Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, ca. 1790-1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History