"b. Hamburg, 1850. Brought to America, 1854. Pupil of the National Academy of Design under L.E. Wilmarth, N.A., and the art students league, New York, under Walter Shirlaw. Afterwards studied with Professors Loeftz and Defregger in Munich." [P. 21.]
Catalogue of Works of Art in the Art Building of the Southern Exposition at Louisville, Ky. Prepared by Charles M. Kurtz. Published for the Art Committee by John P. Morton and Company, 1883.