(Painted 1847.) PRINCIPAL Chief of the Willamette Falls Indians. This once numerous band is now reduced to some half-dozen lodges, and confined to a few barren acres of ground on the west bank of the Willamette. . . . Although reduced in circumstances and degraded by dissipation, Wa-sha-mus retains much of that native dignity which gave him the ascendency over a brave band of warriors. In the days of his prosperity he made frequent excursions to the mountain tribes, with whom he carried on an extensive traffic in the exchange of dried salmon for slaves, horses, dried meat, and articles of clothing or ornament. On his return from one of these excursions, he was attacked by a large party of Roque River Indians, and in the skirmish lost his left eye. . . . In this battle he took many scalps, which he presented to the commander of one of Her Majesty's ships, and received in return a naval officer's suit, . . . and when intoxicated, he may be seen in the mixed costume of an English admiral and Indian chief. It is a very common practice of the Shaste, Umpqua, and Roque River Indians, to sell their children in slavery to the tribes inabiting the banks of the Columbia River. During my tour through the Willamette valley in 1848, I met a party of Tlickitacks returning from one of these trading excursions, having about twenty little boys, whom they had purchased from the Umpqua tribe. [Pp. 61-62.]
Portraits of North American Indians, with Sketches of Scenery, etc., painted by J.M. Stanley. Deposited with the Smithsonian Institution. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. December, 1852.