Identification on attachment (typewritten): "A step toward civilization"; sometimes called "Steps toward civilization", 1904. Fourth monumental work done especially for the Saint Louis Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904. The chief has thrown aside his bonnet and other effects of his culture. He is directing his son to go forward and take up the culture of the white man, as he holds in his arms a volume, symbollical [sic] of the white man's learning, or possibly it is a bible.
Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution Washington, D.C. 20560