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Catalog Data

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Collector:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Collection Director:
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Collection Source:
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Archival materials
Biographical / Historical:
Born in Tottenville, Staten Island, George Hubbard Pepper (1873-1924) became interested in archaeology and the "prehistory" of American Indians as a boy. When Pepper was 22 years old, he spent a winter working at the Peabody Museum of Harvard University. The next year, in 1896, Pepper became assistant curator of the Department of the Southwest in the American Museum of Natural History. From 1896 until 1900, Pepper conducted archaeological work, during the summer months, at Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, as part of the AMNH's Hyde Exploring Expedition. Although Pepper's interests were always primarily archaeological, while he was working in the Southwest he visited several Pueblos. He also visited the Navajo and, becoming interested in Navajo weaving techniques, began collecting Navajo textiles to build his own study collection. He eventually gave his collection to the Museum of the American Indian—Heye Foundation. While still employed by the American Museum of Natural History, Pepper participated in at least two archaeological expeditions sponsored by George G. Heye for the Heye Museum. Pepper excavated in Michoacan, Mexico in 1904 and, with Marshall H. Saville, in Manabi, Ecuador, in 1907. Pepper left the American Museum of Natural History in 1909 and joined the staff of the Department of American Archaeology at the University Museum in Philadelphia. The following year, in 1910, he began working full-time for George G. Heye and became part of the staff of the Museum of the American Indian—Heye Foundation when it was established in 1916. Pepper worked at the Museum of the American Indian—Heye Foundation until his death at the age of 51. He seems to have had an especially close relationship with George G. Heye. Pepper took part in numerous archaeological expeditions for the Museum of the American Indian—Heye Foundation, including the Hendricks-Hodge Expedition at the Zuni site of Hawikuh. Pepper was involved in several professional associations and was a founding member of the American Anthropological Association.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email:
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 6: Collectors
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian